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美国国家航空航天局选择了九家公司,它们将争相将小型登陆车送上月球。

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The first step in a long road to put humans on the lunar surface

今天,NASA announced that it is partnering with nine US aerospace companies to send small robotic landers to the Moon — the first phase in a multi-year plan to put humans on the lunar surface again.The companies are now part of a pool that can compete for NASA money.Whenever NASA wants to put small payloads of scientific instruments on the lunar surface,该机构将从这些公司中选择这样做。

获奖公司包括洛克希德马丁公司,Astrobotic,Moon Express,马斯顿空间系统,Deep Space Systems,德雷珀萤火虫航空公司,Intuitive Machines,and Orbit Beyond.Many of these companies are small fledgling aerospace companies that have yet to put anything in space.还有几家著名的公司不在这个水池里,including SpaceX and Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin — both of which s线上金莎平台howed interest in the program.

这些月球伙伴关系是新建立的NASA CLPS计划-代表商业月球有效载荷服务。NASA put out a notice in April for companies interested in participating in the program,with the submission period ending in October.该倡议旨在发射小型机器人航天器,由私人公司制造,to the surface of the Moon as early as 2019.Such landers will need to carry at least 22 pounds (or 10 kilograms) of scientific instruments,in order to gather more data about the Moon's surface.

美国国家航空航天局想进一步了解月球上有哪些资源,例如,表面理论上的水冰可以用作火箭燃料,也可以用于未来人类任务的其他应用。But there's quite a bit of 线上金沙指定注册网址science that NASA still hopes to do on the Moon,too.研究月球的组成可以告诉我们更多关于太阳系形成的信息,月球的远侧为研究宇宙提供了一个独特的有利位置,according to Thomas Zurbuchen,美国国家航空航天局科学任务局副局长。线上金沙指定注册网址In fact,CLPS项目将由科学任务理事会监督,而不是人类探索——尽管该倡议是人类任务的先兆。线上金沙指定注册网址

"My experience has been from the beginning that human exploration and robotic exploration can work hand in hand and enable opportunity that otherwise cannot be imagined,"Zurbuchen said during a press conference before today's announcement of the partnerships.

But ultimately,the CLPS programmeant to serve as the initial step in NASA's long-term goal of creating a sustainable presence on the Moon.这都源于空间政策指令1,a directive that President Trump signed in December 2017 instructing NASA to send humans to the lunar surface again.Since then,NASA has come up with a complicated strategy for doing that,它需要建立一个新的空间站,并与工业和国际机构合作,创造新的着陆器技术。线上金莎投注网

在接下来的十年里,美国宇航局希望在月球轨道上建造一个名为“门户”的空间站,which will serve as an outpost for astronauts and spacecraft traveling to and from the lunar surface.At the same time,NASA plans to partner with private companies to create a series of lunar landers,eventually culminating in ones that can carry humans to the Moon's surface.其目标是通过CLPS计划创建的小型机器人着陆器将有助于通知大型机器人着陆器和能够运载乘员的着陆器所需的技术。线上金莎投注网

A rendering of Astrobotic's Peregrine Lander.Astrobotic is one of the nine companies NASA is partnering with for CLPS
Image: Astrobotic

NASA did not provide many details about why it selected the companies it did.But now that these companies are"finalists"for the program,他们将继续发展他们的登月器能力,以便他们可以竞争发送有效载荷到月球为NASA。As of now,the companies will be vying for contracts that,当合并时,will equal $2.6 billion over the next 10 years."We're going to buy the service and that enables us to be one customer of many customers spreading the cost,"NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine said at the press conference."它还使我们能够让多个供应商在成本和创新方面展开竞争,这样我们就可以拥有比自己拥有更多的渠道。”线上金莎平台然而,美国国家航空航天局将购买多少交付物以及每项任务的价值没线上金莎平台有固定的条款。

The nine companies will be responsible for finding their own rocket rides to space,if and when NASA selects them to take a payload to the Moon.It's possible that NASA may help in the development of these landers by providing extra money to the companies,尽管它不是一个交易的完成,据苏黎世报道。

Some of the companies have actually joined with other organizations and formed teams to provide rides to the lunar surface.For example,德雷珀此前宣布与日本创业公司iSpace建立合作关系,General Atomics,and Spaceflight Industries — all of whom will work together to create lander capabilities for NASA.Additionally,月亮快车今天宣布,它还将与内华达山脉公司合作,NanoRacksParagon Space Development Corporation,and Odyssey Space Research to make its lunar landers.

线上金莎平台然而,NASA doesn't expect all nine of these partners to succeed in making viable spacecraft that can touch down gently on the Moon."We want them to be successful,"布里登斯廷说。"It's not a guarantee that they will be,because what they're doing is unlike anything we've done before."但他指出,即使登月失败也很重要。"我们的目标是尽可能多地学习,帮助美国这个新兴的产业发展,"he added.